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This line divided after the death of Rupert of Germany in the year 1410 into four lines: Palatinate-Neumarkt, Palatinate-Simmern, Palatinate-Mosbach, and the electoral line with the capital in Heidelberg.
Palatinate-Neumarkt prospered under Rupert's son John (1383–1443). From his marriage with Catherine of Pomerania-Stolp, Christopher of Bavaria (1416–1448) was born, who governed the Kalmar union (Denmark, Sweden, and Norway).