List of Icelandic monarchs

List of Icelandic monarchs

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This is a list of rulers of Iceland, ruling from 1262 to 1944.

Iceland was settled in the late 9th and early 10th centuries, principally by people of Norwegian and other Scandinavian origin. In 930, the ruling chiefs established a republican constitution and an assembly called the Althing - the oldest parliament in the world. Iceland remained independent until 1262, when it entered into a treaty which established a union with the Norwegian monarchy. In the late 14th century Norway and Denmark entered into a union. The union between Denmark and Norway, ignoring some shorter periods, lasted until 1814, when Norway briefly gained independence, and Iceland became an integral part of Denmark until 1918, when Iceland was recognised as a fully sovereign state united with Denmark under a common monarch, on 1 December that same year.

Following a constitutional referendum between 20 and 23 May 1944, Iceland formally became an independent republic on 17 June 1944. Since Denmark was still occupied by Germany, many Danes felt offended that the step should have been taken at the time. Still, the King of Denmark, Christian X, sent a message of congratulations to the Icelandic people.

Possession of Norway (1262–1814)

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image
Haakon IV
  • the Old
(1204-04-01)1 April 1204 – 16 December 1263(1263-12-16) (aged 59) 1262 16 December 1263 Son of Haakon III Fairhair
Magnus VI
  • the Law-mender
(1238-05-01)1 May 1238 – 9 May 1280(1280-05-09) (aged 42) 16 December 1263 9 May 1280 Son of Haakon IV Fairhair
Eric II 1268 – (1299-07-15)15 July 1299 9 May 1280 15 July 1299 Son of Magnus VI Fairhair
Haakon V 1270 – (1319-05-08)8 May 1319 15 July 1299 8 May 1319 Son of Magnus VI Fairhair
Magnus VII 1316 – (1374-12-01)1 December 1374 1319 15 August 1343 Grandson of Haakon V Bjelbo
Haakon VI 1340 – (1380-09-11)11 September 1380 15 August 1343 11 September 1380 Son of Magnus VII Bjelbo
Olaf IV 1370 – (1387-08-23)23 August 1387 29 July 1380 23 August 1387 Son of Haakon VI Bjelbo
Margaret I c. 1353 – (1412-10-28)28 October 1412 1388 28 October 1412 Mother of Olaf IV Estridsen
Eric III c. 1381 – (1459-05-03)3 May 1459 28 October 1412 1442 Son of Wartislaw VII, Duke of Pomerania Griffins
Christopher I (1416-02-26)26 February 1416 – 5 January 1448(1448-01-05) (aged 31) 1442 5 January 1448 Son of John, Count Palatine of Neumarkt Palatinate-Neumarkt
Charles I (1409-10-05)5 October 1409 – 14 May 1470(1470-05-14) (aged 60) 20 November 1449 1450 Son of Knut Tordsson Bonde Bonde
Christian I 1426 – (1481-05-21)21 May 1481 1450 21 May 1481 Son of Dietrich, Count of Oldenburg Oldenburg
John I (1455-02-02)2 February 1455 – 20 February 1513(1513-02-20) (aged 58) 1483 20 February 1513 Son of Christian I Oldenburg
Christian II (1481-07-01)1 July 1481 – 25 January 1559(1559-01-25) (aged 77) 22 July 1513 20 January 1523 Son of John I Oldenburg
Frederick I (1471-10-07)7 October 1471 – 10 April 1533(1533-04-10) (aged 61) 1523 10 April 1533 Son of Christian I Oldenburg
Christian III (1503-08-12)12 August 1503 – 1 January 1559(1559-01-01) (aged 55) 1537 1 January 1559 Son of Frederick I Oldenburg
Frederick II (1534-07-01)1 July 1534 – 4 April 1588(1588-04-04) (aged 53) 1 January 1559 4 April 1588 Son of Christian III Oldenburg
Christian IV (1577-04-12)12 April 1577 – 28 February 1648(1648-02-28) (aged 70) 4 April 1588 28 February 1648 Son of Frederick II Oldenburg
Frederick III (1609-03-18)18 March 1609 – 9 February 1670(1670-02-09) (aged 60) 1 May 1648 9 February 1670 Son of Christian IV Oldenburg
Christian V (1646-04-15)15 April 1646 – 25 August 1699(1699-08-25) (aged 53) 9 February 1670 25 August 1699 Son of Frederick III Oldenburg
Frederick IV (1671-10-11)11 October 1671 – 12 October 1730(1730-10-12) (aged 59) 25 August 1699 12 October 1730 Son of Christian V Oldenburg
Christian VI (1699-11-30)30 November 1699 – 6 August 1746(1746-08-06) (aged 46) 12 October 1730 6 August 1746 Son of Frederick IV Oldenburg
Frederick V (1723-03-31)31 March 1723 – 14 January 1766(1766-01-14) (aged 42) 6 August 1746 14 January 1766 Son of Christian VI Oldenburg
Christian VII (1749-01-29)29 January 1749 – 13 March 1808(1808-03-13) (aged 59) 14 January 1766 13 March 1808 Son of Frederick V Oldenburg
Frederick VI (1768-01-28)28 January 1768 – 3 December 1839(1839-12-03) (aged 71) 13 March 1808 7 February 1814 Son of Christian VII Oldenburg

Possession of Denmark (1814–1918)

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image
Frederick VI (1768-01-28)28 January 1768 – 3 December 1839(1839-12-03) (aged 71) 7 February 1814 3 December 1839 Son of Christian VII Oldenburg
Christian VIII (1786-09-18)18 September 1786 – 20 January 1848(1848-01-20) (aged 61) 3 December 1839 20 January 1848 Son of Frederick, Hereditary Prince of Denmark and grandson of Frederick V Oldenburg
Frederick VII (1808-10-06)6 October 1808 – 15 November 1863(1863-11-15) (aged 55) 20 January 1848 15 November 1863 Son of Christian VIII Oldenburg
Christian IX (1818-04-08)8 April 1818 – 29 January 1906(1906-01-29) (aged 87) 15 November 1863 29 January 1906 Son of Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and great-grandson of Frederick V Glücksburg
Frederick VIII (1843-06-03)3 June 1843 – 14 May 1912(1912-05-14) (aged 68) 29 January 1906 14 May 1912 Son of Christian IX Glücksburg
Christian X (1870-09-26)26 September 1870 – 20 April 1947(1947-04-20) (aged 76) 14 May 1912 1 December 1918 Son of Frederick VIII Glücksburg

Kingdom of Iceland (1918–1944)

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image
Christian X
[1]
(1870-09-26)26 September 1870 – 20 April 1947(1947-04-20) (aged 76) 1 December 1918 17 June 1944 Son of Frederick VIII Glücksburg

Republic of Iceland (1944—)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Sveinn Björnsson, ruled as Regent from 1941 to 1944.


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