List of rulers of Moldavia

List of rulers of Moldavia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_rulers_of_Moldavia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a List of rulers of Moldavia, from the first mention of the medieval polity east of the Carpathians and until its disestablishment in 1862, when it united with Wallachia, the other Danubian Principality, to form the modern-day state of Romania.

Notes

Dynastic rule is hard to ascribe, given the loose traditional definition of the ruling family (on principle, princes were chosen from any branch, including a previous ruler's bastard sons – being defined as os de domn – "of Voivode marrow", or as having hereghie – "heredity" (from the Latin hereditas); the institutions charged with the election, dominated by the boyars, had fluctuating degrees of influence). The system itself was challenged by usurpers, and became obsolete with the Phanariote epoch, when rulers were appointed by the Ottoman Sultans. Between 1821 and 1862, various systems combining election and appointment were put in practice. Moldavian rulers, like Wallachian and other Eastern European rulers, bore the titles of Voivode or/and Hospodar.

Most rulers did not use the form of the name they are cited with, and several used more than one form of their own name; in some cases, the ruler was only mentioned in foreign sources. The full names are either modern versions or ones based on mentions in various chronicles.

The list is brought up to date for the first rulers, following the documented studies of Ștefan S. Gorovei[1] and Constantin Rezachevici.[2]

List

Princes of Moldavia

House of Dragoș[edit]

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Remarks
Dragoș c. 1347 c. 1354 Described as an early ruler of Moldavia, he was sent there as a representative of king Louis I of Hungary to establish a line of defense against the Golden Horde, where he ruled.
Sas c. 1354 c. 1363 son of Dragoș
Balc of Moldavia c. c. son of Sas

House of Bogdan-Mușat[edit]

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Consort Notes
Bogdan I the Founder c. 1363 1367 Maria
three children
Deposed Sas
Petru I 1367 July 1368 Unmarried Grandson of Bogdan I [3]
Lațcu July 1368 1375 Anna
before 1372
one child
Son of Bogdan I, deposed Petru I [3]
Petru II Mușat 1375 December 1391 Sophia of Lithuania
1387
no children

Olga of Warsaw
1388
no children
Son of Costea
Roman I December 1391 March 1394 Anastasia
three children
Son of Costea
Ștefan I March 1394 28 November 1399 Unmarried Son of Roman I
Iuga (George I) 28 November 1399 29 June 1400 Unmarried Son of Roman I, deposed by intervention of Mircea I of Wallachia
Alexandru I the Good 29 June 1400 1 January 1432 Margareta of Losoncz
1394
two children

Anna Neacsa of Podolsk
1405
three children

Ringala of Lithuania
1419
(divorced 13 December 1421)
no children

Marina Bratul
1421
three children
Son of Roman I, installed by Mircea I of Wallachia
Iliaș I 1 January 1432 October 1433 Maria Olshanki of Lithuania
23 October 1425
three children
Son of Alexandru cel Bun; 1st rule
Ștefan II October 1433 4 August 1435 Unmarried Illegitimate son of Alexandru cel Bun; 1st rule (only de facto ruler till September 1434)
Iliaș I 4 August 1435 May 1443 Maria Olshanki of Lithuania
23 October 1425
three children
2nd rule, jointly with Ștefan II
Ștefan II 4 August 1435 13 July 1447 Unmarried 2nd rule, 4 August 1435 – May 1443 jointly with Iliaș; May 1444–1445 jointly with Petru III
Petru III May 1444 1445 An unknown sister of John Hunyadi
before 1445
no children
1st rule, jointly with Ștefan II.
Roman II 13 July 1447 22 August 1447 Unmarried son of Iliaș; 1st rule
Petru III 22 August 1447 23 December 1447 An unknown sister of John Hunyadi
before 1445
no children
2nd rule
Roman II 23 December 1447 between 23 February and 5 April 1448 Unmarried 2nd rule
Petru III 5 April 1448 10 October 1448 An unknown sister of John Hunyadi
before 1445
no children
3rd rule
Csupor de Monoszló
(Usurper)
10 October 1448 December 1448 Unknown Non-dynastic. Born in Croatia, he was a Hungarian nobleman, commander of troops of John Hunyadi. He was sent in support of Petru III to depose his brother Roman, but Petru died suddenly two months later. Csupor ascended at the throne. His name, literally Tub Voivode was mentioned by Grigore Ureche.
Alexandru II December 1448 12 January 1449 Unmarried son of Iliaș I; 1st rule
Bogdan II 12 January 1449 15 October 1451 Oltea
before 1433
six children
nephew of Alexandru the Good.
Petru IV Aron 15 October 1451 24 February 1452 Unknown
before 1455
one child
illegitimate son of Alexandru the Good; 1st rule
Alexandru II 24 February 1452 22 August 1454 Unmarried 2nd rule
Petru IV Aron 22 August 1454 between 8 December 1454 and 8 February 1455 Unknown
before 1455
one child
2nd rule
Alexandru II 8 February 1455 25 March 1455 Unmarried 3rd rule
Petru IV Aron 25 March 1455 12 April 1457 Unknown
before 1455
one child
3rd rule
Ștefan III the Great 12 April 1457 2 July 1504 Eudokia Olelkovna of Lithuania
5 July 1463
Suceava
three children

Maria Asanina Palaiologina of Gothia
14 September 1472
Suceava
four children

Maria Voichița of Wallachia
1478
three children
Son of Bogdan II. In his reign Moldavia reaches its zenith.
Bogdan III The One-Eyed 2 July 1504 22 April 1517 Anastasia
1510
no children

Ruxandra of Wallachia
21 July 1513
no children
son of Ștefan III the Great;
Luca Arbore
(Regent)
22 April 1517 1523 Unknown Gatekeeper of Suceava. Regent in the name of Stefan IV.
Ștefan IV the Younger 1523 14 January 1527 Stana of Wallachia
1524
no children
Son of Bogdan III; also called Ștefăniță until 1523 under the regency of Luca Arbore, Gatekeeper of Suceava
Petru V Rareș 14 January 1527 14 September 1538 Maria
before 1529
four children

Elena of Serbia
1530
four children
Illegitimate son of Stephen the Great, 1st rule
Ștefan V Lăcustă 21 September 1538 20 December 1540 Chiajna
before 1540
two children
grandson of Stephen the Great
Alexandru III the Evil 21 December 1540 9 or 16 February 1541 Unmarried son of Bogdan III
Petru V Rareș 9 or 16 February 1541 2 or 3 September 1546 Maria
before 1529
four children

Elena of Serbia
1530
four children
2nd rule
Ilie II Rareș 2 or 3 September 1546 30 May 1551 Unmarried 1st son of Petru Rareș
Ștefan VI Rareș 30 May 1551 1 September 1552 Unmarried 2nd son of Petru Rareș
Ioan I Joldea between 4 and 12 September 1552 between 4 and 12 September 1552 Unmarried Non-dynastic. Ruled 2 or 3 days in 1552.
Alexandru IV Lăpușneanu between 4 and 12 September 1552 30 November 1561 Ruxandra of Moldavia
January 1556
fourteen children
Son of Bogdan III, brother of Ștefan IV; 1st rule
Ioan II Iacob Heraclid
(Jacob Heraclides)
18 November 1561 9 November 1563 A illegitimate daughter of Mircea IV of Wallachia
no children
The Despot Vodă, non-dynastic.
Ștefan VII Tomșa 9 August 1563 between 20 February and 10 March 1564 Unknown
at least two children
Non-dynastic.
Alexandru IV Lăpușneanu between 20 February and 10 March 1564 9 March 1568 Ruxandra of Moldavia
January 1556
fourteen children
Restored to the throne.
Ruxandra of Moldavia
(regent)
9 March 1568 November 1570 Alexandru IV Lăpușneanu
January 1556
fourteen children
Widow of Alexander IV. Regent on behalf of her son.
Bogdan IV November 1570 15 February 1572 A princess from the Paniczewsk family
1571
one child
Son of Alexandru Lăpușneanu
Ioan III the Terrible 15 February 1572 11 June 1574 Maria Semionovna of Rostov
1552
Moscow
two children
Son of Ștefan IV; also called cel Viteaz) (the Brave)

Houses of Basarab (Drăculeşti line) and Bogdan-Muşat[edit]

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Family Remarks
Petru VI the Lame 1574 1577 Drăculești 1st rule
Ioan IV Potcoavă November 1577 December 1577 Hetman, also called Ivan Pidkova, Nicoară Potcoavă or Ivan Sarpega. Non-dynastic.
Petru VI the Lame 1578 1579 Drăculești 2nd rule
Ioan V the Saxon 1579 1582 Bogdan-Mușat illegitimate son of Petru Rareș
Petru VI the Lame 1582 1591 Drăculești 3rd rule
Aaron I the Tyrant 1591 1592 Bogdan-Mușat son of Alexandru Lăpușneanu; 1st rule
Alexandru V the Wrongdoer 1592 1592 Bogdan-Mușat son of Bogdan IV; also ruled Wallachia (1592–1593)
Petru VII the Cossack 1592 1592 Bogdan-Mușat son of Alexandru IV Lăpușneanu
Aaron I the Tyrant 1592 1595 Bogdan-Mușat 2nd rule
Ștefan VIII Răzvan 1595 1595

Houses of Basarab (Drăculești line) and Movilești[edit]

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Family Remarks
Ieremia Movilă 1595 1600 Movilești grandson of Petru Rareș; 1st rule
Mihail I Viteazul
(Michael I the Brave)
1600 1600 Drăculești also ruled Wallachia (1593–1600) and Transylvania (1599–1600)
Ieremia Movilă 1600 1606 Movilești 2nd rule
Simion Movilă 1606 1607 Movilești brother of Iremia Movilă
Mihail II Movilă 1607 1607 Movileşti son of Ieremia Movilă; 1st rule
Constantin I Movilă 1607 1607 Movilești son of Ieremia Movilă; under the regency of his mother Elzbieta Csomortany de Losoncz; 1st rule
Mihail II Movilă 1607 1607 Movilești 2nd rule
Constantin I Movilă 1607 1611 Movilești under the regency of his mother; 2nd rule
Ștefan IX Tomșa 1611 1615 1st rule
Alexandru VI Movilă 1615 1616 Movilești
Radu Mihnea 1616 1619 Drăculești 1st rule
Gaspar Graziani 1619 1620

Various dynasties[edit]

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Family Remarks
Alexandru VII Iliaş 1620 1621 Bogdan-Mușat nephew of Petru VI, Aron Tiranul and Bogdan IV; 1st rule
Ștefan IX Tomșa 1621 1623 2nd rule
Radu Mihnea 1623 1626 Drăculești 2nd rule
Miron Barnovschi-Movilă 1626 1629 Movilești 1st rule
Alexandru VIII Coconul
(Alexander the Child-Prince)
1626 1629 Drăculești 1st rule
Moise Movilă 1630 1631 Movilești 1st rule
Alexandru VII Iliaș 1631 1633 Bogdan-Mușat 2nd rule
Miron Barnovschi-Movilă 1633 1633 Movilești 2nd rule
Moise Movilă 1633 1634 Movilești 2nd rule
Vasile Lupu 1634 1653 1st rule
Gheorghe II Ștefan 1653 1653 1st rule
Vasile Lupu 1653 1653 2nd rule
Gheorghe II Ștefan 1653 1658 2nd rule
Gheorghe III Ghica 1658 1659 Ghica
Constantin Șerban 1659 1659 1st rule
Ștefan X Lupu 1659 1661 also called Papură-Vodă (Bullrush Voivode); 1st rule
Constantin Șerban 1661 1661 2nd rule
Ștefan X Lupu 1659 1661 2nd rule
Eustratie Dabija 1661 1665
Gheorghe IV Duca 1665 1666 1st rule
Iliaș III Alexandru 1666 1668 Bogdan-Mușat The last member of the House of Bogdan-Mușat reigning in Moldavia; son of Alexandru VII
Gheorghe IV Duca 1668 1672 2nd rule
Ștefan XI Petriceicu 1672 1673 1st rule
Dumitrașcu Cantacuzino 1673 1673 Cantacuzene 1st rule
Ștefan XI Petriceicu 1673 1674 2nd rule
Dumitrașcu Cantacuzino 1674 1675 Cantacuzene 2nd rule
Antonie Ruset 1675 1678 Rosetti
Gheorghe IV Duca 1678 1683 3rd rule
Ștefan XI Petriceicu 1683 1684 3rd rule
Dumitrașcu Cantacuzino 1684 1685 Cantacuzene 3rd rule
Constantin Cantemir 1685 1693 Cantemirești
Dimitrie Cantemir 1693 1693 Cantemirești 1st rule; deposed by Ottomans
Constantin Duca 1693 1695 1st rule
Antioh Cantemir 1695 1700 Cantemirești 1st rule
Constantin Duca 1700 1703 2nd rule
Chancellor
Ioan Buhuș
1703 1703 1st term
Mihail III Racoviță 1703 1705 Racoviță 1st rule
Antioh Cantemir 1705 1707 Cantemirești 2nd rule
Mihail III Racoviță 1707 1709 Racoviță 2nd rule
Chancellor
Ioan Buhuș
1709 1710 2nd term
Nicolae Mavrocordat 1709 1710 Mavrocordato 1st rule
Dimitrie Cantemir 1710 1711 Cantemirești 2nd rule

Phanariotes (1711–1821)

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Family Remarks
Caimacam
Lupu Costachi
1711 1711
Ioan Ι Mavrocordat 1711 1711 Mavrocordato
Nicolae Mavrocordat 1711 1715 Mavrocordato 2nd rule
Mihai III Racoviță 1715 1726 Racoviță 3rd rule
Grigore II Ghica 1726 1733 Ghica 1st rule
Constantin Mavrocordat 1733 1735 Mavrocordato 1st rule
Grigore II Ghica 1735 1739 Ghica 2nd rule
Russian occupation 1739 1739 Russo-Austrian-Turkish War (1735–1739)
Grigore II Ghica 1739 1741 Ghica 3rd rule
Constantin Mavrocordat 1741 1743 Mavrocordato 2nd rule
Ioan II Mavrocordat 1743 1747 Mavrocordato son of Nicolae Mavrocordat and brother to Constantin Mavrocordat
Grigore II Ghica 1747 1748 Ghica 4th rule
Constantin Mavrocordat 1748 1749 Mavrocordato 3rd rule
Iordache Stavrachi 1749 1749
Constantin Racoviță 1749 1753 Racoviță 1st rule
Matei Ghica 1753 1756 Ghica
Constantin Racoviță 1756 1757 Racoviță 2nd rule
Scarlat Ghica 1757 1758 Ghica
Ioan Teodor Callimachi 1758 1761 Callimachi
Grigore Callimachi 1761 1764 Callimachi 1st rule
Grigore III Ghica 1764 1767 Ghica 1st rule
Grigore Callimachi 1767 1769 Callimachi 2nd rule
Constantin Mavrocordat 1769 1769 Mavrocordato 4th rule
Russian occupation 1769 1774 Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774)
Grigore III Ghica 1774 1777 Ghica 2nd rule
Constantin Moruzi 1777 1782 Mourousi
Alexandru Mavrocordat Delibey 1782 1785 Mavrocordato
Alexandru Mavrocordat Firaris 1785 1786 Mavrocordato
Alexandru Ipsilanti 1786 1788 Ypsilanti
Austrian occupation 1787 1791 military commander: Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg
Emanuel Giani Ruset 1788 1789 Rosetti also called Manole or Manolache
Russian occupation 1788 1791 Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792)
Alexandru Moruzi 1792 1792 Mourousi 1st rule
Mihai Suțu 1793 1795 Soutzos also called Draco
Alexandru Callimachi 1795 1799 Callimachi
Constantin Ipsilanti 1799 1801 Ypsilanti
Alexandru Suțu 1801 1802 Soutzos
Chancellor
Iordache Conta
1802 1802
Alexandru Moruzi 1802 1802 Mourousi 2nd rule
Scarlat Callimachi 1806 1806 Callimachi 1st rule
Alexandru Moruzi 1806 1807 Mourousi 3rd rule
Russian occupation 1806 1812 Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812)
Bessarabia is placed under Imperial Russian rule in 1812.
(See also President of Moldova, for the rulers of Moldova, a part of this territory which became independent in the 20th century.)
Alexandru Hangerli 1807 1807
Scarlat Callimachi 1807 1810 Callimachi 2nd rule
deposed by Russians
Caimacam
Iordache Ruset-Roznovanu
1807 1807 Rosetti
Caimacam Metropolitan
Veniamin Costache
1807 1812 1st term
Scarlat Callimachi 1812 1819 Callimachi 3rd rule
Mihail Suțu 1819 1821 Soutzos
Stolnici
Manu and Rizos-Nerulos
1819 1819
Caimacam Metropolitan
Veniamin Costache
1821 1821 2nd term
Filiki Eteria occupation 1821 1821 military commander: Alexander Ypsilantis
Caimacam
Stefan Bogoridi
(Ștefan Vogoride)
1821 1822
Ioan Sturdza 1822 1828
Russian occupation 1828 1834 military commanders: Fyodor Pahlen, Pyotr Zheltukhin, and Pavel Kiseleff
Organic Statute government (1832–1856)
Mihail Sturdza 1834 1849
Grigore Alexandru Ghica 1849 1853 Ghica 1st rule
Russian occupation 1853 1854 Crimean War
Grigore Alexandru Ghica 1854 1856 Ghica 2nd rule
Protectorate established by the Treaty of Paris (1856–1859)
Extraordinary Administrative Council 1856 1856
Caimacam
Teodor Balș
1856 1857
Caimacam
Nicolae Vogoride
1857 1858
Caimacams 1858 1859 Ștefan Catargiu, Vasile Sturdza and Anastasie Panu
(Catargiu resigns in 1858 and is replaced by Ioan A. Cantacuzino)
Alexander John Cuza 1859 1862 also ruled Wallachia in personal union
Formal union of Moldavia and Wallachia in 1862.

For later rulers, see Domnitor and King of Romania.

References

  • Constantin Rezachevici - Cronologia critică a domnilor din Țara Românească și Moldova a. 1324 - 1881, Volumul I, Editura Enciclopedică, 2001,
  1. ^ Gorovei, Ștefan S., Întemeierea Moldovei. Probleme controversate, Editura Universităţii „Alexandru Ioan Cuza”, Iași, 1997, ISBN 973-9149-74-X
  2. ^ Rezachevici, Constantin, Cronologia critică a domnilor din Țara Românească și Moldova, a. 1324 - 1881, vol. I, Editura Enciclopedică, București, 2001, ISBN 973-45-0387-1
  3. ^ a b Constantin Rezachevici - Cronologia critică a domnilor din Țara Românească și Moldova a. 1324 - 1881, Volumul I, Editura Enciclopedică, 2001


Related Blogs

Loading ...