Middle Irish

Middle Irish

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Irish
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Middle Irish
Gaoidhealg
Pronunciation [ˈɡɯːʝeɫɡ]
Native to Ireland, Scotland, Isle of Man
Era Evolved into Early Modern Irish/Classical Gaelic about the 12th century
Early forms
Latin (Gaelic alphabet)
Language codes
ISO 639-2 mga
ISO 639-3 mga
Glottolog None

Middle Irish (sometimes called Middle Gaelic[1]) is the Goidelic language which was spoken in Ireland, most of Scotland and the Isle of Man from the 10th to 12th centuries; it is therefore a contemporary of late Old English and early Middle English.[2][3] The modern Goidelic languages—Irish, Scottish and Manx—are all descendants of Middle Irish.

The Lebor Bretnach, the "Irish Nennius", survives only from manuscripts preserved in Ireland; however, Thomas Owen Clancy has argued that it was written in Scotland, at the monastery in Abernethy.[4]

Grammar

Middle Irish is a fusional, VSO, nominative-accusative language.

Nouns decline for 2 genders: masculine, feminine; 3 numbers: singular, dual, plural; and 5 cases: nominative, accusative, genitive, prepositional, vocative. Adjectives agree with nouns in gender, number, and case.

Verbs conjugate for 3 tenses: past, present, future; 4 moods: indicative, subjunctive, conditional, imperative; independent and dependent forms. Verbs conjugate for 3 persons and an impersonal form in which no agent can be determined. There are a number of preverbal particles marking the negative, interrogative, subjunctive, relative clauses, etc.

Prepositions inflect for person and number. Different prepositions govern different cases. Some prepositions govern different cases depending on intended semantics.

Notes

  1. ^ Mittleman, Josh. "Concerning the name Deirdre". Medieval Scotland. Retrieved 13 February 2013. Early Gaelic (a.k.a. Old Irish) is the form of Gaelic used in Ireland and parts of Scotland from roughly 600–900 AD. Middle Gaelic (a.k.a. Middle Irish) was used from roughly 900–1200 AD, while Common Classical Gaelic (a.k.a. Early Modern Irish, Common Literary Gaelic, etc.) was used from roughly 1200–1700 AD 
  2. ^ Mac Eoin, Gearóid (1993). "Irish". In Martin J. Ball. The Celtic Languages. London: Routledge. pp. 101–44. ISBN 0-415-01035-7. 
  3. ^ Breatnach, Liam (1994). "An Mheán-Ghaeilge". In K. McCone; D. McManus; C. Ó Háinle; N. Williams; L. Breatnach. Stair na Gaeilge in ómós do Pádraig Ó Fiannachta (in Irish). Maynooth: Department of Old Irish, St. Patrick's College. pp. 221–333. ISBN 0-901519-90-1. 
  4. ^ Clancy, Thomas Owen (2000). "Scotland, the 'Nennian' recension of the Historia Brittonum, and the Lebor Bretnach". In Simon Taylor. Kings, Clerics and Chronicles in Scotland, 500-1297. Dublin & Portland: Four Courts Press. pp. 87–107. ISBN 1-85182-516-9. 

Further reading

  • MacManus, Damian (1983). "A chronology of the Latin loan words in early Irish". Ériu. 34: 21–71. 
  • McCone, Kim (1978). "The dative singular of Old Irish consonant stems". Ériu. 29: 26–38. 
  • McCone, Kim (1981). "Final /t/ to /d/ after unstressed vowels, and an Old Irish sound law". Ériu. 31: 29–44. 
  • McCone, Kim (1996). "Prehistoric, Old and Middle Irish". Progress in medieval Irish studies. pp. 7–53. 
  • McCone, Kim (2005). A First Old Irish Grammar and Reader, Including an Introduction to Middle Irish. Maynooth Medieval Irish Texts 3. Maynooth. 

See also



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